- OCI Compute lets you provision & manage “instances” on-demand.
- Instances are of 2 types:
- Bare Metal (BM):
- Dedicated physical server.
- Highest performance & isolation.
- Virtual Machine (VM):
- Multiple isolated VMs run on bare metal hardware.
- Runs on same hardware as BM instances.
- Bare Metal (BM):
- OCI uses Ksplice to update hypervisor kernel without reboot. No need to pause VMs. All hypervisors supported.
Instance Shapes in OCI Compute
A “shape” is a prepackaged combination of CPU, memory & network resources.
- For general purpose workloads.
- Provide a balance of CPU cores, memory & network resources.
- Come with Intel or AMD processors.
Dense IO Shapes
- For large databases, big data workloads & apps that need high performance local storage.
- Include locally-attached NVMe-based SSDs.
- For hardware accelerated workloads.
- Include intel CPUs & NVIDIA GPUs.
- High performance computing.
- For workloads that need high frequency processor cores / cluster networking.
- Available only for BM instances.
- Customize allocated OCPUs.
- Memory, network bandwidth & VNICs scale proportionately with OCPUs.
Components Required to Launch an Instance
- AD: Data center where instance resides.
- VCN + Subnet
- Tags (optional).
- SSH key pair for Linux.
- Password for Windows:
- Auto-generated by OCI on instance creation.
- Must be changed on first login.
- Template of VHD — Virtual Hard Drive
- Determines OS & preinstalled software.
- Can be 1 of these:
- Oracle-provided images.
- Trusted 3rd-party images.
- Prebuilt Oracle enterprise images.
- Custom images.
- BYOI — Bring Your Own Image
- Boot volumes.
- Shape: Determines CPU, memory, etc.
- BV — Block volumes (optional).
Storage for Compute Instances
- Block Volume:
- Dynamically provision “blocks” of storage.
- A volume can be attached to 1 or more compute instances.
- File Storage:
- NFS — Network File System
- Durable, scalable, secure, enterprise-grade.
- Connect to it from 1 or more instances.
- Object Storage:
- Internet-scale, high-performance.
- Unlimited capacity.
- For unstructured data of any content type.
- This is regional storage — not tied to a compute instance.
- Archive Storage:
- Same as object storage but for data that doesn’t require instantaneous retrieval.
Best Practices for Compute Instances
- 169.254.0.0/16 is used for:
- iSCSI connections to boot & block volumes.
- Instance metadata.
- Class D IPs:
- 22.214.171.124 — 126.96.36.199
- Reserved for multicast address assignments.
- Class E IPs:
- 240.0.0.0 — 255.255.255.255
- Reserved for future use.
- 3 IPs in Each Subnet:
- 1st IP in CIDR — Network Address
- Last IP in CIDR — Broadcast Address
- 1st Host Address — Default Gateway
- Oracle-provided images have preconfigured firewall rules.
- These allow only root on Linux & Administrators on Windows to connect to iSCSI endpoints — 169.254.0.2:3260 & 169.254.2.0/24:3260.
- Don’t remove these rules. If you do, non-admins can access boot disk.
- Don’t create custom images without these rules.
- Don’t enable Uncomplicated Firewall (UFW) on Ubuntu.
Resilience Best Practices
- Keep redundant instances in different ADs.
- Create custom image after every system modification.
- Back up regularly.
- If hardware fails, launch instance from custom image & apply backups.
Never Lose Access to Instance
- A DHCP client runs on every instance.
- It leases its IP from DHCP server.
- It renews its lease every 24 hours.
- Never stop the DHCP client. If you do, IP lease won’t renew & you lose access.
- Disabling NetworkManager also stops DHCP client.
- Stopping DHCP client might remove host route table when lease expires.
- Loss of iSCSI connectivity might result in loss of boot drive.
Misc Best Practices
- Default user is
opcon Oracle-provided Linux & Windows images.
- Don’t share SSH keys. Create more SSH-enabled users.
- Use Oracle-provided NTP server.
- Each AD has 3 FDs.
- If your app has 2 web servers & 2 DB servers, place 1 of each in 1 FD & the other 1 in different FDs:
- If your app has 1 web server & 1 DB server, put both in same AD.
Customer-Managed VM Maintenance
- When your VM’s hardware needs maintenance, Oracle notifies you.
- In maintenance window, your VM is migrated to other hardware.
- You can reboot your VM before that to migrate.
Protecting Data on NVMe Devices
- Some shapes include locally-attached NVMe devices.
- These provide low latency, high performance block storage.
- Ideal for big data, OLTP, etc.
- These are not protected in any way: no backups, images, RAIDs, nothing.
- To find these, run
lsblk& look for
Protect Against Device Failure
- Use RAID array:
- RAID 1: Exact copy of data on 2 or more disks.
- RAID 10: Stripes data across multiple mirrored pairs.
- RAID 6: Block-level striping with 2 parity blocks distributed across all member disks.
- To get notified of device failure, set
mdadmmonitor as a daemon.
- To simulate device failure, run
sudo mdadm /dev/md0 --fail /dev/nvme0n1.
Protect Against Loss of Instance or AD
- Replicate data to another instance in another AD.
- Lowest RTO RPO. Highest cost.
- For Oracle DBs, use built-in Data Guard.
- Replication can be sync or async.
- Use DRDB for general purpose block replication.
- RTO RPO significantly higher.
- Costs significantly lower.
- Don’t store backups in same AD.
Protect Against Data Corruption/Loss from App/User Error
- Either use file system that supports snapshots, like ZFS.
- Or use LVM to manage snapshots.
- Performance may significantly degrade when taking LVM snapshot.
- Don’t store backups in same AD.
- Auto-created at instance launch in same compartment.
- Associated with instance until instance is terminated.
- Can optionally preserve BV when terminating instance.
- BV of 1 instance can be used to launch another instance of different shape/type.
- This way you can switch from BM to VM & vice-versa.
- Or scale up/down an instance.
- To repair BV, stop instance, detach BV, attach BV to another instance as data volume, repair it & reattach back to original instance.
- Encrypted at-rest by default.
- In-transit encryption for boot/block volumes is available only for VMs launched from Oracle-provided images.
- Boot & block volumes can be grouped into a volume group.
- This makes it possible to backup/clone entire instance (system + storage disks in 1 go).
- When launching instance, provide BV size:
- 50 GB (default) to 32 TB for Linux.
- 256 GB (default) to 32 TB for Windows.
- If non-default size is provided, extend the partition on the volume.
- Cannot resize boot volume after launching instance.
- BV performance can be switched between “balanced” & “high performance” any time.
- Block volume service’s backups feature takes crash-consistent backups — point-in-time snapshot w/o app interruption/downtime.
- Can backup BV that’s attached or detached.
- Backups can be:
- Manual or scheduled by policy.
- Full or incremental.
- Volume’s tags are applied to volume’s backups.
- Backup’s tags are applied to volume restored from it.
- Backup might be larger than source volume because:
- Many OSes zero-out entire volume. This marks those blocks as initialized, so backup includes them.
- Backup includes up to 1 GB of metadata.
- Backups can be copied across regions for BC/DR, migration/expansion.
- To copy cross-region, you need permissions to read & copy boot volume backups in source region & create boot volume backups in destination region.
- Limits of cross-region copy:
- You can only copy 1 backup at a time from a source region.
- You can only copy boot volume backups for instances based on Oracle-provided images.
- The shape compatibility list is from the source region & cannot be changed.
- When you create an instance from the Console & specify a boot volume backup that was copied from another region as the image source, you may get a message indicating that there was an error loading the source image. Ignore the error & continue!
- Copy a boot volume without going through backup & restore process.
- Clone is a point-in-time direct disk-to-disk deep copy of the source boot volume.
- Any subsequent changes to the data on the source volume are not copied to the clone.
- Clone is same size as source volume but you can specify larger size when cloning if required.
- Clone happens immediately. You can use clone right away.
- You can only create 1 clone at a time from a volume.
- No backups should be running either.
- Clone must be in same region, AD & tenant but can be in different compartment.
Volume Backup vs Clone
|Description:||Point-in-time backup of data.|
Can restore multiple volumes from a backup.
|Single point-in-time copy of volume.|
Same as backup + restore.
|Use case:||Backup data to duplicate environment or preserve data.|
Meet compliance & regulatory requirements.
|Rapidly duplicate an env e.g. prod to dev.|
|Speed:||Minutes / Hours||Seconds|
|Storage location:||Object Storage||Block Volume|
|Retention policy:||Policy-based backups expire.|
Manual backups don’t expire.